As 2021 approaches, the citizens of Bangladesh are waiting for the Coronavirus vaccination program where expectations for the development of the vaccine have been raised by the Health Minister & other government officials, but the burning concern is how much Bangladesh is prepared to manufacture doses. A Bangladesh firm, Globe Bitech, is seeking to manufacture coronavirus vaccines while the US & UK have begun vaccinating from the US drug company Pfizer & Moderna and Germany’s BioNTech, while Russia, with the aid of Sputnik V candidate, has also started a vaccination program. In addition, AstraZeneca, the UK University of Oxford & Drugmaker, is waiting for emergency clearance for the use of its produced vaccine, not just because Bangladesh has already signed a deal with the Indian vaccine producer Serum Institute for 30 million doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine scheduled to arrive by February.
Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine
The Pfizer vaccine is based on a brand new mRNA technology for a human vaccine. In the form of messenger RNA, this technology incorporates some of the genetic material of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (mRNA). This instructs the cells to become part of the virus that activates an infection-inhibiting immune response and defends against disease. Both vaccines are intended to produce an immune response to train our bodies to combat the virus if and when we meet it, though in multiple ways. The U.S. on Dec. 11, 2020 The Food and Drug Administration released the first Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the 2019 coronavirus disease preventive vaccine (COVID-19) for persons 16 years of age and older due to extreme acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The emergency usage permit facilitates the delivery of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine in the U.S. For the prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 2019 for people aged 16 and over.
Popular Transverse Effects
Pressure at the injection site, weakness, headache, body pain, chills, knee pain, and fever were the most frequently recorded side effects, usually lasting several days. Of note, after the second dose, more patients have experienced these side effects than after the first dose, so it is necessary for vaccine providers and recipients to anticipate that certain side effects can arise after either dose, but even more so after the second dose.
So far, Norway has announced that around 45,000 people have been vaccinated against COVID-19 in the world. Their vaccination policy has primarily concentrated on nursing home patients.
In the first place, there could be more emphasis on frontline health-care staff in other countries. Therefore, if there is any connection between elderly deaths and this vaccination, it might not yet be obvious. It relies on monitoring as well. Norway may have a particularly fast screening and notification mechanism in place, checking anyone who has been vaccinated effectively and reporting any unfavorable effects immediately.
COVID-19 Moderna Vaccine
New vaccine called COVID-19, mRNA-1273 is a vaccine of the United States National Institute for Allergies and Infectiity, which has been developed by the Biomedical Advanced Research and development authorities (BARDA) and Moderna (NIAID). There are four weeks apart from two doses of 0.5 mL of intra-muscular injection. It is an RNA (modRN A) nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine, encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles that codes for a Spike SARS-CoV-2 protein. The Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine was one of two RNA vaccines developed and used in 2020 against COVID-19.
On 18 December 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration granted mRNA-1273 an Emergency Use Authorization (FDA).
On 23 December 2020 in the European Union on 6 January 2021 it was approved to be used in Canada, and on 8 January 2021 was permitted in the U.K.
By December 2020, several states that would enable the timely implementation of the vaccine in the United Kingdom, EU, Canada and the United States conducted a multi-country emergency use authorisation (EUA) assessment.
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had approved mRNA-1273 under the EUA on 18 December 2020. This is the first Moderna product approved by the FDA.
Health Canada approved mRNA-1273 on 23 December 2020. Premier Justin Trudau announced previously that deliveries would begin within 48 hours of acceptance and 168,000 doses would arrive by the end of December.
It originates from a compromised version of a common cold chimpanzee virus (called adenovirus). It was changed, although it did not cause disease, to appear much like corona virus.
The immune system continues to produce antibodies as the vaccine is injected into a patient and precipitates them to attack any corona virus infection. It has been seen by research to be quite effective. Unlike the Pfizer jab, the Oxford vaccine should be put in a normal refrigerator and kept at an unusually cold temperature (-70C). It makes distribution much better.
On 30 December, the MHRA was approved and five days later, the first doses were taken.
First, the vaccine is being supplied with 530,000 doses by six hospital trusts in Oxford, London, Sussex, Lancashire and Warwickshire. According to the Health and Social Care Agency, hundreds of GP-led hospitals and nursing homes across the UK can collect most of the other doses available during the past week (DHSC). There were separate dosing regimens for Trail patients; some had two full-dose and one half-dose doses followed by a full-dose dose.
The use of two full doses was authorized by the MHRA and demonstrated 62 per cent efficacy.
Trials also found that the Pfizer vaccine is 95 percent effective, although there have been variations in the manner the trials were conducted, so it is impossible to compare the two findings specifically. And it’s important to note that a better outcome than the best flu jab, which is around 50 percent successful, is also the lower 62 percent figure.
A national deployment and vaccination programme has been drafted by the Bangladesh government to vaccinate 80 percent of the population in four phases. Unfortunately, the nation needs technology, logistics, expertise and experience to accomplish this mammoth mission, as the crisis triggered by COVID-19 is unlike any other crisis seen in the past. Population-wide vaccination needs many aspects to be introduced, including though not limited to: the capability of the current cold chain, recruiting and educating vaccinators, maintaining good leadership, ensuring adequate planning, initiating vaccine hesitancy awareness campaigns.
Bangladesh has taken the commendable step of signing a Memorandum of Understanding with the Indian Serum Institute (SII) to obtain 30 million doses of the Oxford/AstraZeneca University vaccine. In addition, Bangladesh expects the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Voluntary Alliance for Vaccination and Immunization) under the COVAX (COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access Facility) to receive 68 million doses in 2021. But to get vaccinations outside the COVAX facility, Bangladesh must go for more robust vaccine diplomacy, as the vaccines promised by SII and GAVI might not be adequate for national vaccination to be carried out.